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2016-2017文化統計
類別:其他專案出版品
出版品名稱:2016-2017文化統計
研 究 人 員:廖新田,林詠能,卓怡君
出 版 年 月:201804
頁數:283
關 鍵 字:文化,統計,cultural, Statistics
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摘要
我國《文化統計》乃依據「2009年聯合國教科文組織文化統計架構」與我國「2012年文化部文化統計架構」之內容所編定,連結國際文化統計相關分類標準,以呈現文化的社會與經濟等整體文化面貌。本書內容分為「文化與行政」、「文化與教育」、「文化與社會」、「文化與產業」等四大領域綱領。「文化與行政」為政府組織、人力、資源投入與法規等面向;「文化與教育」為文化專業人才在政府、學校及社會的培訓現況;「文化與社會」為民眾的文化參與實踐;「文化與產業」則呈現我國文化創意產業發展樣態。

文化部目前之施政理念包含:(一)再造文化治理、建構藝術自由支持體系;(二) 連結與再現土地與人民的歷史記憶;(三)深化社區營造,發揚生活「所在」的在地文化;(四)以提升文化內涵來提振文化經濟;(五)開展文化未來新篇:重視青年創意、強化數位革新,創造國際連結。故本年文化統計亦反映文化部之施政理念與成果,包含呈現藝術自由支持體系(行政法人國家表演藝術中心)資訊;反映文化資產法修正及博物館法施行狀況;強化社區營造計畫發展與成果;展現文化部在各文化領域之支援、補助、輔導及發展國際交流概況。以下為我國2016年文化統計結果之摘要說明。

(一)文化與行政
文化與行政主要呈現我國2016年公部門及第三部門之組織編制、人力、經費與法規新增修訂之概況。其中在文化行政人力上,2016年文化部及所屬機關(構)與行政法人人力總數達2,349人,其他中央政府機關業務涉及文化領域之人力共計3,070人,二者合計5,419人,較2015年之5,353人略微增加1.23%,而2016年地方政府文化局(處)之人力亦略微增加0.23%,為4,425人。
在文化經費編列方面,我國2016年中央政府文化支出預算為28,891.70百萬元,較2015年減少9.10%,在中央政府文化支出預算占中央政府總預算的比率上,由2015年之1.64%下降至2016年之1.46%。在各地方政府文化支出預算金額上,2016年亦下降至30,805.91百萬元,在占地方政府總預算的比率亦由2015年之3.04%減少至2016年之2.83%,已降至3%以下。至於行政法人國家表演藝術中心之總收入決算為1,569,202千元,較2015年之收入決算1,394,085千元大幅增加12.56%。在第三部門之經費上,文化事務財團法人年度經費平均收入為52,435千元,收入金額高於支出金額家數占比為58.50%,收入金額及收入大於支出家數占比皆較2015年降低。
在補助金額上,2016年文化部補助縣市政府及國內團體金額達6,335百萬元,較2015年大幅增加19.78%,國家文化藝術基金會常態性及專案性補助件數共計788件,補助金額達1.54億元,補助件數及補助金額皆較2015年增加。
整體觀之,2016年中央政府與地方政府文化經費皆大幅下降,文化人力成長幅度亦不高,但在對藝文的補助上,文化部及國家文化藝術基金會皆呈現大幅增加的現象。

(二)文化與教育
文化與教育主要說明我國文化領域之人才培育情形。2016年國內共有153所大專校院開設文化相關學門課程,聘任專任教師數12,911名,文化相關學門學生人數為432,063人,占國內高等教育在學學生人數之33.00%,文化相關學門畢業生數為91,238人,約占全國高等教育畢業生數之29.50%。在高中職文化相關學科方面,學生數為212,955人,占高中職總學生數的比率為27.44%,畢業生數為67,376人,占高中職總畢業生數的26.93%。為了推動社區營造,2016年文化部共編列6.38億元經費推動「社區營造與村落文化發展計畫」及「博物館與地方文化館推動與輔導計畫」,結合在地居民、團體力量,培育社造人才,讓文化在地方落實生根。

(三)文化與社會
文化與社會主要呈現我國文化資源、文化活動的展現、參與及交流情況。在文化資產方面,古蹟/歷史建築/聚落建築群/考古遺址/文化景觀數共計2,341處,古物件組達1,644件,傳統藝術/民俗及有關文物數共計514項。在文化設施數量上,2016年我國文化展演場所總計4,462處,平均每百萬民眾享有之文化展演場所數為190個,而自2015年博物館法公布施行後,博物館專業認定家數達71家。在藝文活動的參與上,全國藝文活動共計舉辦56,107個,在出席人次方面,2016年則達257,249千人次,平均每萬人享有之藝文活動場次為24場,平均每人出席藝文活動次數為10.93次,較2015年上升,其中國外藝文團體或個人來臺展演藝文活動個數總計有6,410個,出席人次為71,365千人次,活動個數及出席人次皆較2015年增加。2016年國立文化相關機關共計32家,總入館人次為4,679.94萬人次,平均每館入館人次為146.25萬人次,較2015年之140.80萬人次增加,其中收費入館人次占總入館人次之30.17%,較2015年之31.33%降低。在影視及流行音樂的概況上,2016年臺北市上映電影部數為734部,較2015年大幅增加,但在票房上,臺北市首輪電影票房為38.98億元,較2015年減少7.2%。而在臺灣地區音樂市場,2016年音樂銷售額約為23.24億元,較2015年成長16.33%,其中實體唱片銷售較2015年略微上升1.27%,而數位音樂市場則大幅增加27.49%。整體而言,臺灣地區音樂市場在結構上呈現實體唱片衰退,數位銷售成長的現象,總銷售金額則隨著數位音樂市場的成長而逐步的回升。
在文化參與率上,本年調查的數據反映過去一年的參與行為,即為2016年及2017年的平均狀況。在過去一年(2016/2017年)民眾在各類型活動參與上,大眾傳播類(電影、廣播、報紙、雜誌、書籍)及視覺藝術類參與率皆較2015/2016年低,而在表演藝術類、文化藝術機構與設施及文藝民俗節慶活動的參與率皆較2015/2016年高。但在休閒、文化及教育消費支出上,2016年我國平均每戶家庭消費支出為776,811元,其中休閒、文化及教育消費支出為72,875元,占消費支出之9.38%,若扣除教育支出及套裝旅遊,平均每戶家庭文化消費支出為21,152元,較2015年減少1.79%。
整體而言,2016年民眾對文化活動的參與,在藝文活動的場次及參與人次及國立文化相關機關的參觀人次皆呈現上升的現象,2016/2017年表演藝術類、文化相關機關及文藝民俗節慶活動的參與率皆較2015/2016年高。民眾雖對藝文活動參與率高,但在消費面上,在國立文化相關機關之收費入館占比卻呈現下滑的現象,家庭休閒、文化及教育消費支出金額及其占家庭消費支出比率亦較2015年低,2016年民眾在文化消費的意願仍舊低迷,在文化參與上仍以免費參與為主。

(四)文化與產業
文化與產業主要呈現我國文化創意產業之發展情形。2016年我國文化創意產業總家數63,339家,較2015年增加0.72%;營業額為新臺幣8,072.5億元,較2015年減少3.42%;外銷占比為11.47%,較2015年增高,占我國名目國內生產毛額的比率則下降至4.71%。文化相關產業就業人數計261,497人,較2015年增加3.64%,占我國總就業人數比重則與2015年相同,皆為2.25%。由上觀之,在2016年文化創意產業雖外銷占比已逐漸回穩,家數及就業人數呈現增加,但在營業額及占全國生產毛額(GDP)的比率皆呈現下滑。
整體而言,2016年政府對文化支出經費大致上呈現大幅減少的現象,民眾在文化活動、機構的參觀與參與則呈現增加的現象,但在付費參與占比及家庭休閒、文化及教育消費支出金額卻較2015年下降,反映民眾文化消費意願的降低。因此,民眾在最近一年(2016/2017年平均概況)文化參與方面,視覺藝術之參與率呈現下滑,文化設施及文藝民俗節慶活動等較以開放性場地及活動為主之參與率則呈現上升的現象。在產業發展上,文創產業的家數及就業人數雖較2015年增加,但營業額卻大幅下降,營業額占全國GDP比重亦持續下降,文創產業在經營上面臨著極大的競爭壓力。

Taiwan’s “Cultural Statistics” are compiled on the basis of the “UNESCO Cultural Statistics Framework 2009” and from Taiwan’s Ministry of Culture “Cultural Statistics Framework 2012”, linking relevant international classification standards for cultural statistics to present an overall cultural outlook including the social and economic aspects of culture. The contents of this publication are divided into four major areas: “Culture and Administration” which covers aspects such as government organizations, personnel, resource input, and regulations; “Culture and Education” which concerns the training of cultural professionals in government, schools, and society; “Culture and Society” which covers the public’s cultural participation and practice; and “Culture and Industry” which presents the development of cultural and creative industries in Taiwan.

The Ministry of Culture’s governance approach includes: (i) re-establishing cultural governance and constructing a system where arts have freedom to seek support; (ii) deepening community arts operation and promoting local culture; (iii) lifting economic development by enhancing cultural content; (iv) developing a new chapter by putting emphasis on youth creativity, intensifying digital innovation, and creating international links. Therefore, this year's cultural statistics also reflect concepts and achievements by the Ministry of Culture, including a system where arts have freedom to seek support (the National Center for Performing Arts); the revision of the Cultural Assets Law and the implementation of the Museum Law; and the development and achievements of the community development plan. These also reflect the Ministry of Culture's support, assistance, counselling and development of international exchanges in various areas. The following is a summary of Taiwan's 2016 cultural statistics.

1. Culture and Administration
“Culture and Administration” mainly presents an overview for the organizational structures, personnel, funding, and regulation amendments in Taiwan’s public and tertiary sectors in 2016. In 2016, there was a total of 2,349 staff in the Ministry of Culture and its affiliates (organizations) and administrative legal departments. In other central government agencies with a cultural brief there were 3,070 staff, a total of 5,419 people, which was a slight increase of 1.23% over 2015’s 5,353 figure. In 2016, staff in local government culture bureaux and divisions also increased slightly by 0.23% to 4,425.
Taiwan’s 2016 central government budget for cultural expenditure was NT$28,891.70 million, a decrease of 9.10% compared to 2015. The total proportion of central government budget dedicated to culture fell to 1.46% in 2016 from 1.64% in 2015.In 2016, expenditure on culture in local government dropped to NT$330,805.91 million, and its share of the total local government budget decreased to 2.83% in 2016 from 3.04% in 2015, a drop to well under 3%. The total income of the National Performing Arts Centers was NT$1,569.202 million, a substantial increase of 12.56% from 2015’s NT$1,394.085 million. In the tertiary sector funding sector, cultural foundations’ average annual income was NT$52.435 million and the number of such foundations whose income was higher than expenditure was 58.50%. The income and the number of those with a proportion of income higher than expenditure was lower than in 2015.
In 2016 Ministry of Culture subsidies to local governments and domestic art groups amounted to NT$6,335 million, a substantial increase of 19.78% compared to 2015. There were 788 regular and special projects funded by the National Culture and Arts Foundation with a total of NT$1.54 billion. The number of projects and subsidies increased from 2015.
As a whole, in 2016, both central and local government cultural expenditure dropped drastically, and growth in cultural staff numbers was also low. However, both the Ministry of Culture and the National Culture and Arts Foundation showed a substantial increase in subsidies for art and culture.

2.Culture and Education
“Culture and Education” explains the current talent cultivation conditions and statuses in Taiwan’s cultural-related sectors. In 2016, a total of 153 colleges and universities set up culture-related courses, employing 12,911 full-time teachers. The number of students engaged in culture-related studies was 432,063, accounting for 33.00% of the total number of students in domestic higher education. There were 91,238 graduates in culture-related studies, accounting for 29.50% of higher education graduates. The number of high school students engaged in culture-related disciplines was 212,955 accounting for 27.44% of the total number of high and secondary vocational school students. The number of graduates from culture-related disciplines was 67,376, or 26.93% of the total number of high school graduates. In 2016, to promote community cultural operations, the Ministry of Culture prepared a total of NT$638 million in funds for a “Community Operation and Village Cultural Development Plan” and a “Museum and Local Culture Center Promotion and Guidance Project”, to combine both local residents and groups in nurturing local talent.

3. Culture and Society
“Culture and Society” mainly illustrates Taiwan’s cultural resources and cultural displays, participations, and exchanges of cultural activities. There are a total of 2,341 monuments/historical buildings/settlements/archaeological sites/cultural landscapes; 1,644 historic objects, and 514 traditional art/folk and related cultural relics. In 2016, there were a total of 4,462 venues for cultural exhibitions. The average number of cultural exhibition venues per million people was 190, and since the implementation of the Museum Law in 2015, the number of certified museums homes is now 71.
In terms of participation in arts and cultural activities, 56,107 national arts and cultural events were held. There were 257,249 thousand visits in 2016. The average number of arts and cultural events enjoyed per 10,000 people was 24, with an average of one person attending arts evets. The number of events was 10.93, which was higher than that of 2015. There were a total of 6,410 arts and cultural activities by foreign arts organizations or individuals in Taiwan. The number of attendees was 71,365 thousand, and the number of events and attendances increased over 2015. There were a total of 6,410 arts and cultural activities by foreign arts organizations or individuals in Taiwan. The number of attendees was 71,365 thousand, and the number of events and attendances increased over 2015.In 2016, there were a total of 32 national culture-related agencies with a total attendance of 46.7494 million. The average number of admissions per venue was 1.4625 million, which was an increase from 1.4088 million in 2015. Fee-paying visits and admissions accounted for 30.17% of the total number of admissions, which was lower than the 31.33% in 2015.
In film and popular music, in 2016, 734 films were released in Taipei City, a significant increase from 2015. At the box office, the first screening in Taipei amounted to NT$3.898 billion, a 7.2% decrease from 2015. In the music market, sales in 2016 were approximately NT$2.324 billion, up 16.33% from 2015, of which physical record sales increased slightly by 1.27% from 2015, while the digital music market increased significantly by 27.49%. On the whole, the music market structure has experienced a decline in physical sales, and growth in digital sales. Total sales have gradually increased with the growth of several music markets.
In cultural participation rates, the survey data this year reflects the participation of the past year, which is an average for 2016 and 2017. Over the period 2016/2017, the participation rate in mass media (film, radio, newspapers, magazines, books) and visual arts was lower than in 2015/2016. The participation rate in performing arts, cultural Institutions or Venues and cultural and arts folk festival activities was higher than that of 2015/2016. However, in spending on leisure, culture, and education, the average per household expenditure in 2016 was NT$776,811, of which spending on leisure, culture, and education was NT$72,875, accounting for 9.38% of consumer spending. However, if deducting spending on education and package travel, the average household cultural consumption expenditure per household was NT$21,152, a decrease of 1.79% from 2015.
Overall, the number of people participating in cultural activities and the number of people participating in cultural events and the number of visits to national cultural institutions in 2016 have all increased. The participation rate for performing arts, cultural institutions and cultural and art festivals held in 2016/2017 was higher than that of 2015/2016. Although the participation rate in arts and cultural activities was higher, in terms of expenditure, the amount spent at national cultural institutions declined. The expenditure on household leisure, cultural and educational was lower and as a proportion of household expenditure was also lower, than in 2015. In 2016, public willingness to spend on culture was low, and non-payment was the main factor in cultural participation.

4. Culture and Industry
“Culture and Industry” mainly illustrates the development of the culture and creative industries in Taiwan. In 2016, there were 63,339 cultural and creative industries, an increase of 0.72% over 2015. Their turnover was NT$807.25 billion, a decrease of 3.42% compared to 2015, and export share accounted for 11.47%, which was higher than in 2015. The ratio of gross domestic product fell to 4.71%. The number of employees in these industries was 261,497, an increase of 3.64% from 2015, and the proportion of total domestic employment was the same as that in 2015, which was 2.25%. From these figures can be seen that in 2016, although the proportion of their exports gradually stabilized, and the number of households and the number of employees increased, however, both the turnover and the ratio of their gross domestic product (GDP) dropped.
Overall, government spending on culture substantially decreased in 2016. People’s visits and participation in cultural activities and institutions showed an increase, but the proportion of paid participation as a ratio of household spending on leisure, culture, and education decreased. The amount was lower than that of 2015, reflecting a reduction in people’s willingness to spend on cultural activity. As a result, over the period surveyed (average annual rates for 2016/2017) participation rates in visual arts declined over the period, but increased at more public, open venues such as art and folk festivals. The number of households and people participating in the cultural industry rose, compared to 2015, but total turnover fell drastically and also continued to decline as a proportion of GDP. The cultural and creative industries face stiff operating competition.
目錄
 I  緒論  3
   壹、前言  3
     一、文化統計的意涵  3
     二、國際間文化統計範疇  3
     三、我國文化統計彙編概況  4
   貳、文化統計架構  6
     一、文化與行政  6
     二、文化與教育  6
     三、文化與社會  6
     四、文化與產業  6
   參、文化統計調查方法  8
     一、次級資料蒐集  8
     二、問卷調查  8
     三、調查限制  12
  
 II  主要文化統計數據與指標  15
     一、文化與行政    15
     二、文化與教育    16
     三、文化與社會    17
     四、文化與產業    18
  
 III  文化統計提要分析  21
   壹、文化與行政    25
     一、文化行政組織    25
     二、文化行政人力    27
     三、文化經費    31
     四、文化法規    44
   貳、文化與教育    49
     一、政府人才培育    49
     二、學校人才培育    49
     三、社會人才培育    53
   參、文化與社會    61
     一、文化資源    61
     二、藝文展演與節慶    64
     三、人文與出版    72
     四、影視與流行音樂    76
     五、文化交流    84
     六、文化參與及文化消費    92
     七、綜合性文化獎項辦理概況    102
     八、觀光    103
   肆、文化與產業    109
     一、文化創意產業    109
     二、文化貿易    116
  
 IV  統計表  121
  
 V  附錄  267
 附錄一、文化統計名詞說明    267
 附錄二、  文化參與及消費調查問卷    274
  
 
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