Taiwan’s “Cultural Statistics” are compiled on the basis of the “UNESCO Cultural Statistics Framework 2009” and from Taiwan’s Ministry of Culture “Cultural Statistics Framework 2012”, linking relevant international classification standards for cultural statistics to present an overall cultural outlook including the social and economic aspects of culture. The contents of this publication are divided into four major areas: “Culture and Administration” which covers aspects such as government organizations, personnel, resource input, and regulations; “Culture and Education” which concerns the training of cultural professionals in government, schools, and society; “Culture and Society” which covers the public’s cultural participation and practice; and “Culture and Industry” which presents the development of cultural and creative industries in Taiwan.
The Ministry of Culture’s governance approach includes: (i) re-establishing cultural governance and constructing a system where arts have freedom to seek support; (ii) deepening community arts operation and promoting local culture; (iii) lifting economic development by enhancing cultural content; (iv) developing a new chapter by putting emphasis on youth creativity, intensifying digital innovation, and creating international links. Therefore, this year's cultural statistics also reflect concepts and achievements by the Ministry of Culture, including a system where arts have freedom to seek support (the National Center for Performing Arts); the revision of the Cultural Assets Law and the implementation of the Museum Law; and the development and achievements of the community development plan. These also reflect the Ministry of Culture's support, assistance, counselling and development of international exchanges in various areas. The following is a summary of Taiwan's 2016 cultural statistics.
1. Culture and Administration “Culture and Administration” mainly presents an overview for the organizational structures, personnel, funding, and regulation amendments in Taiwan’s public and tertiary sectors in 2016. In 2016, there was a total of 2,349 staff in the Ministry of Culture and its affiliates (organizations) and administrative legal departments. In other central government agencies with a cultural brief there were 3,070 staff, a total of 5,419 people, which was a slight increase of 1.23% over 2015’s 5,353 figure. In 2016, staff in local government culture bureaux and divisions also increased slightly by 0.23% to 4,425. Taiwan’s 2016 central government budget for cultural expenditure was NT$28,891.70 million, a decrease of 9.10% compared to 2015. The total proportion of central government budget dedicated to culture fell to 1.46% in 2016 from 1.64% in 2015.In 2016, expenditure on culture in local government dropped to NT$330,805.91 million, and its share of the total local government budget decreased to 2.83% in 2016 from 3.04% in 2015, a drop to well under 3%. The total income of the National Performing Arts Centers was NT$1,569.202 million, a substantial increase of 12.56% from 2015’s NT$1,394.085 million. In the tertiary sector funding sector, cultural foundations’ average annual income was NT$52.435 million and the number of such foundations whose income was higher than expenditure was 58.50%. The income and the number of those with a proportion of income higher than expenditure was lower than in 2015. In 2016 Ministry of Culture subsidies to local governments and domestic art groups amounted to NT$6,335 million, a substantial increase of 19.78% compared to 2015. There were 788 regular and special projects funded by the National Culture and Arts Foundation with a total of NT$1.54 billion. The number of projects and subsidies increased from 2015. As a whole, in 2016, both central and local government cultural expenditure dropped drastically, and growth in cultural staff numbers was also low. However, both the Ministry of Culture and the National Culture and Arts Foundation showed a substantial increase in subsidies for art and culture.
2.Culture and Education “Culture and Education” explains the current talent cultivation conditions and statuses in Taiwan’s cultural-related sectors. In 2016, a total of 153 colleges and universities set up culture-related courses, employing 12,911 full-time teachers. The number of students engaged in culture-related studies was 432,063, accounting for 33.00% of the total number of students in domestic higher education. There were 91,238 graduates in culture-related studies, accounting for 29.50% of higher education graduates. The number of high school students engaged in culture-related disciplines was 212,955 accounting for 27.44% of the total number of high and secondary vocational school students. The number of graduates from culture-related disciplines was 67,376, or 26.93% of the total number of high school graduates. In 2016, to promote community cultural operations, the Ministry of Culture prepared a total of NT$638 million in funds for a “Community Operation and Village Cultural Development Plan” and a “Museum and Local Culture Center Promotion and Guidance Project”, to combine both local residents and groups in nurturing local talent.
3. Culture and Society “Culture and Society” mainly illustrates Taiwan’s cultural resources and cultural displays, participations, and exchanges of cultural activities. There are a total of 2,341 monuments/historical buildings/settlements/archaeological sites/cultural landscapes; 1,644 historic objects, and 514 traditional art/folk and related cultural relics. In 2016, there were a total of 4,462 venues for cultural exhibitions. The average number of cultural exhibition venues per million people was 190, and since the implementation of the Museum Law in 2015, the number of certified museums homes is now 71. In terms of participation in arts and cultural activities, 56,107 national arts and cultural events were held. There were 257,249 thousand visits in 2016. The average number of arts and cultural events enjoyed per 10,000 people was 24, with an average of one person attending arts evets. The number of events was 10.93, which was higher than that of 2015. There were a total of 6,410 arts and cultural activities by foreign arts organizations or individuals in Taiwan. The number of attendees was 71,365 thousand, and the number of events and attendances increased over 2015. There were a total of 6,410 arts and cultural activities by foreign arts organizations or individuals in Taiwan. The number of attendees was 71,365 thousand, and the number of events and attendances increased over 2015.In 2016, there were a total of 32 national culture-related agencies with a total attendance of 46.7494 million. The average number of admissions per venue was 1.4625 million, which was an increase from 1.4088 million in 2015. Fee-paying visits and admissions accounted for 30.17% of the total number of admissions, which was lower than the 31.33% in 2015. In film and popular music, in 2016, 734 films were released in Taipei City, a significant increase from 2015. At the box office, the first screening in Taipei amounted to NT$3.898 billion, a 7.2% decrease from 2015. In the music market, sales in 2016 were approximately NT$2.324 billion, up 16.33% from 2015, of which physical record sales increased slightly by 1.27% from 2015, while the digital music market increased significantly by 27.49%. On the whole, the music market structure has experienced a decline in physical sales, and growth in digital sales. Total sales have gradually increased with the growth of several music markets. In cultural participation rates, the survey data this year reflects the participation of the past year, which is an average for 2016 and 2017. Over the period 2016/2017, the participation rate in mass media (film, radio, newspapers, magazines, books) and visual arts was lower than in 2015/2016. The participation rate in performing arts, cultural Institutions or Venues and cultural and arts folk festival activities was higher than that of 2015/2016. However, in spending on leisure, culture, and education, the average per household expenditure in 2016 was NT$776,811, of which spending on leisure, culture, and education was NT$72,875, accounting for 9.38% of consumer spending. However, if deducting spending on education and package travel, the average household cultural consumption expenditure per household was NT$21,152, a decrease of 1.79% from 2015. Overall, the number of people participating in cultural activities and the number of people participating in cultural events and the number of visits to national cultural institutions in 2016 have all increased. The participation rate for performing arts, cultural institutions and cultural and art festivals held in 2016/2017 was higher than that of 2015/2016. Although the participation rate in arts and cultural activities was higher, in terms of expenditure, the amount spent at national cultural institutions declined. The expenditure on household leisure, cultural and educational was lower and as a proportion of household expenditure was also lower, than in 2015. In 2016, public willingness to spend on culture was low, and non-payment was the main factor in cultural participation.
4. Culture and Industry “Culture and Industry” mainly illustrates the development of the culture and creative industries in Taiwan. In 2016, there were 63,339 cultural and creative industries, an increase of 0.72% over 2015. Their turnover was NT$807.25 billion, a decrease of 3.42% compared to 2015, and export share accounted for 11.47%, which was higher than in 2015. The ratio of gross domestic product fell to 4.71%. The number of employees in these industries was 261,497, an increase of 3.64% from 2015, and the proportion of total domestic employment was the same as that in 2015, which was 2.25%. From these figures can be seen that in 2016, although the proportion of their exports gradually stabilized, and the number of households and the number of employees increased, however, both the turnover and the ratio of their gross domestic product (GDP) dropped. Overall, government spending on culture substantially decreased in 2016. People’s visits and participation in cultural activities and institutions showed an increase, but the proportion of paid participation as a ratio of household spending on leisure, culture, and education decreased. The amount was lower than that of 2015, reflecting a reduction in people’s willingness to spend on cultural activity. As a result, over the period surveyed (average annual rates for 2016/2017) participation rates in visual arts declined over the period, but increased at more public, open venues such as art and folk festivals. The number of households and people participating in the cultural industry rose, compared to 2015, but total turnover fell drastically and also continued to decline as a proportion of GDP. The cultural and creative industries face stiff operating competition.